Petrenko A.I. Introduction to grid technologies for science and education

Petrenko. Grid

Petrenko A.I. Introduction to grid technologies for science and education. Handbook. Kyiv, NTUU “KPI”, 2008, 122 p.

УДК 004.738.5(075.8)
ББК 32.973.202я73
ISBN 078-966-622-293-3

Grid technologies and worldwide grid network are gradually replacing commonly used Internet with its web services in the field of computing resources and data storages sharing.  Grid pretends for the role of universal data processing infrastructure, with a variety of grid services improving the quality of problem solving .
The analysis of the grid concept, architectures, resources is done; the information about grid-based distributed systems architecture development is systematized;  the results of research of modern state of the art,  grid system development methodologies, grid middleware are achieved;  the projects of Ukrainian grid infrastructure development are described.
For master’s degree training at System design speciality. Also can be recommended for other specialities of “Computer sciences” and “Computer engineering” directions.

CONTENTS

Preface
List of abbreviations

Chapter 1. Grid as the 4th phase of informatization development

In this chapter the concept of grid technology reveals as the new (fourth) stage of development of information technologies:  next phase after the epoch of mainframes, emergence of the personal computers and origination and expansion of the Internet. This new stage promises new possibilities in the sharing of not only information (what is the achievement of the Internet phase), but any information resources: computing powers, data storages, programs and others like that at the new quality level. Benefits from the grid utilization by scientists (in processing of huge volumes of data, conducting large-scale calculations, organization of collaboration) are emphasized separately. Urgency of grid technology continue to grow, that is proved by the dynamics of appearance and development of numerous grid projects all over the world. Also the state of Ukrainian grid is covered in detail: projects, plans, present resources and participants.

1.1.    How grid can contribute to science?
1.2.    Grid in the world
1.3.    Why it is now that grid is so popular?
1.4.    Grid in Ukraine
1.4.1.    NASU grid segment
1.4.2.    UGrid project of MESU
1.4.3.    UNGI for EGI joint project
1.5.    Who is interested in grid infrastructure?

Chapter 2. Architecture and basic components of UGrid

Architectural solutions that are applicable for the grid are well examined. The basic components of grid (services, sites, networks) are covered with correspondence to grid requirements (standard mechanism of access, safety, coexistence of heterogeneous components, decentralizing administration and other) emphasized. The canonical multi-layered architecture of grid (after I. Foster) is examined in detail. The main features of modern grid software (OGSA/WSRF- approach) are shown. Also the concept of «virtual organization» and access issues of its participants are reviewed.

2.1. Basic functions
2.2. Basic components of architecture
2.2.1. Endpoint systems
2.2.2. Clusters
2.2.3. Intranet
2.2.4. Internet
2.3. Grid architecture
2.4. Grid organization
2.4.1. Grid software
2.4.2. Resources
2.4.3. Single-level organization of grid
2.4.4. Architectural solutions
2.4.5. DCGrid technology
2.4.6. New generation of grid software
2.5. Virtual organizations and their support

Chapter 3. Grid software frameworks

This chapter provides detailed information on the basic «structural blocks» of grid middleware: job management system, information system, data management system others. Implementation and functioning details are shown illustrated with the example of one of the most succeeded middleware packages - gLite. Basic commands for job management and their parameters are given, and also the main features of job description language are shown. The main objects of grid data management procedures files, directories, remarks) are described, as well as related software components. The specifics of work of the grid information system is shown with the example of R - GMA architecture. The basic issues of security system and virtual organizations (VOMS) management system are reflected. The other middleware packages are shortly examined (Nordugrid ARC) and the interoperability problem is discussed.

3.1. gLite architecture. Organizing the work.
3.2. Grid-infrastructure organization
3.3. Job management system
3.3.1. User command-line interface
3.3.2. Job description
3.3.3. Simple jobs
3.3.4. Job processing sequence
3.4. Data management system
3.4.1. File management utilities
3.4.2. Directory service
3.4.3. Replication and file transfer service
3.4.4. Storage element
3.4.5. File system security
3.5. Information system
3.5.1. Monitoring principles
3.5.2. Provider types
3.5.3. R-GMA component management
3.6. Operation maintenance
3.6.1. Logging service
3.6.2. Accounting service
3.7. Virtual organizations: security and support
3.7.1. Formal rights description
3.7.2. Authorization information acquiring
3.7.3. Authorization process
3.7.4. Account management
3.7.5. Grid technology standardization
3.8. Nordugrid ARC

Chapter 4. Grid portals

Grid portal approach for accessing grid functionality is examined. The expediency of development of grid portal concept is grounded. Requirements for such solutions is outlined, as well as common grid portal architecture. This chapter contains the useful list of existent software solutions in this area. The more complex knowledge portal development issues are also mentioned.

4.1. Grid portal users and developers
4.2. Grid access-type portal
4.3. Knowledge portal
4.3.1. Web 2.0/3.0 and grid
4.3.2. Automated service composition
4.3.3. Ontologies and grid
4.3.4. Data mining services

Conclusions
Appendix 1. Other national grids
Appendix 2. EGEE branches
Appendix 3. Existing supercomputer applications
References

This handbook is available at http://moodle.kpi.ua

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