Petrenko A.I. Application of grid technologies for science and education

Petrenko. Grid

Petrenko A.I.  The application of grid technologies in science and education. Handbook. Kyiv, NTUU “KPI”, 2008 – 143 p.

The application of grid technologies to various fields brings us to the new quality level or even new approaches in huge experimental datasets processing; it also allows the modeling of complex processes, visualization of large data volumes, creation of complex compute-intensive business applications.


Chapter 1. Grid: past, present, and future.

The first chapter is fully devoted to the analysis of evolutional changes in grid technology during all time of its existence: from its appearance in form of the concept to the modern trends.  Grid concept is examined concerning the specifics of such kind of distributed systems; emergence reasons and first steps are analysed. The evolution process of grid can be considered as a few stages. The first generation is a generation of meta-computing, shown on the example of a few pioneer grid projects. Numerous technologies of the second generation (that was designated by the efforts to solve wider range of problems:  security, access, interoperability, resource discovery) are examined in detail. Third generation of the grid systems was notable because of the acceptance of the service-oriented approach in architecture, and by its course on convergence with Web technologies and active involvement of grid technologies to scientific research (e-science). Further development is possible with semantic technologies, increased complexity of the more intelligent middleware.

1.1.    Grid concept
1.2.    Grid origins
1.3.    Grid evolution: 1st generation (1990-1996)
1.3.1.    FAFNER
1.3.2.    I-WAY
1.4.    Grid evolution: 2nd generation (1997-2003)
1.4.1.    Basic technologies of the 2nd generation    Globus    Legion    Distributed object systems    Java    Jini and RMI protocol    The Common Component Architecture Forum    Grid resource brokers and schedulers
1.4.2.    Peer-to-peer computing
1.5.    Grid evolution: 3rd generation for e-Science (since 2004)
1.5.1.    Service-oriented architecture
1.5.2.    OGSA
1.5.3.    Agents
1.5.4.    Web as grid information infrastructure
1.6.    Grid evolution: future horizons

Chapter 2. Grid applications

Grid technology is the universal tool for organization of large-scale calculations and processing of huge volumes of data.  This is very important in order to solve modern science problems. However, without the specialized software solutions for the different domains, grid will remain an abstract «virtual super computer» only. This chapter gives the unfolded review of specialized grid projects from different disciplines, much attention is paid to their software solutions: frameworks, portals, software components and their interoperation, general architecture of the systems etc. The wide spectrum of scientific domains being considered includes: astronomy and meteorology, ecology and Earth sciences, chemistry and bioinformatics, high energy physics and astrophysics, business and engineering. Also some interdisciplinary projects and universal tools for various scientific applications are described.

2.1. e-Science and grid projects
2.2. Grid technologies for astronomy and astrophysics
2.2.1. Virtual observatory
2.2.2. Astronomical data consolidation and standardization
2.2.3. Image processing
2.3. Grid for ecology and meteorology
2.3.1. Meteorological forecasts with the help of a grid
2.4. Grid for bioinformatics
2.4.1. Medical imaging branch
2.4.2. Bioinformatics branch
2.4.3. Drug development branch
2.4.4. IBM World Community Grid program
2.5. Earth sciences applications
2.6. Grid for combinatorial chemistry
2.6.1. Mix-and-split approach of combinatorial chemistry
2.6.2. COMB-e-CHEM project
2.6.3. Chemistry grid and its application for air pollution forecasting
2.7. Grid for high-energy physics
2.7.1. Main grid projects on HEP
2.7.2. HEP grid projects cooperation
2.8. Grid for social sciences and business
2.9. Grid for engineering
2.9.1. NASA IPG project
2.9.2. GEODISE project
2.9.3. DAME project
2.9.4. CAD-Grid project CGRID CAD-Grid information system
2.10. Interdisciplinary grid projects
2.10.1. CrossGrid project
2.10.2. EGEE project
2.10.3. Grid2003 project
2.10.4. GridSolve project
2.10.5. SURAgrid project
2.10.6. LA Grid project
2.10.7. myGrid project
2.10.8. Some VO examples


This handbook is available at

Ukrainian (UA)Russian (CIS)English (United Kingdom)