Petrenko A.I., Bulakh B.V., Khondar V.S. Semantic grid technologies for science and education

Petrenko. Grid

Petrenko A.I., Bulakh B.V., Khondar V.S. Semantic grid technologies for science and education. Handbook. Kyiv, NTUU “KPI”, 2010 – 178 p.

The grid evolution on the way to semantic (or “smart”) grid is researched. Semantic grid operates with information and services of exact meaning, this makes possible for computers and humans to deal with knowledge instead of information.  Semantic grid is based upon semantic web technologies: metadata, ontologies, agents.  The approaches of description and construction of ontologies for data and web/grid services are examined, as well as architecture solutions and implementation examples of such systems. The combination of web and grid technologies can simplify information search, filtering and processing  procedures, well-corresponding to the recent trends of emerging semantic  encyclopedias, knowledge bases, human language bases etc.
For the masters’ degree training on “System design” speciality. Also can be recommended for other specialities of “Computer sciences” and “Computer engineering” directions.

CONTENTS

Chapter 1. e-Science and semantic grid and web

This chapter makes an attempt to identify the place of e-Science in the present conditions of active development of web, grid and semantic technologies. The question is, actually, about fourth generation of grid that originates from the developed service-oriented systems and semantic Web. So the special attention is paid to the key concept of semantic technologies, ontology, and also to numerous tools for ontology development and methodology of such development. The other side of the semantic technologies – the introduction of semantics into the existing web standards (HTML 5, мікроформати) is also mentioned. Finally, the problem of semantic search is analysed in detail, basic algorithms and implementation examples of the searching engines are examined.

1.1.    Generations of grid environments
1.2.    Semantic web as an information basement for grid
1.3.    Ontologies
1.3.1.    Ontology development methodology
1.3.2.    Metadata representation alternatives
1.3.3.    Development tools
1.4.    Acquiring the new knowledge
1.5.    HTML embedded semantics
1.5.1.    HTML 5 semantics
1.5.2.    Micro-formats
1.6.    Search in semantic web
1.6.1.    General search approaches and principles
1.6.2.    Semantic search engines

Chapter 2. Web- and grid services

Semantic grid is the product of combination of two constituents - semantics and service-oriented architecture (grid services infrastructure). The second chapter is focused on examining the main ways of Web- and grid-services integration. Grid specifics that conflicts with principles of the service-oriented architecture and causes additional requirements for Web services in grid is analyzed. The brief analysis of web service technology standards is given (from the point of view of their fitness for grid services implementation). The main approaches to semantic web services development are described. The only example of existing combination of Web-services and grid functionality is investigated (Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) and its implementation - OGSI/WSRF). Some generalized recommendations for integration of grid services in a national grid infrastructure are given.

2.1.     Grid services and their specifics
2.1.1.    Grid as the way to the new generation of Web
2.1.2.    Grid services and their specifics
2.1.3.    Grid service lifecycle
2.1.4.    Web services as a reliable SOA solution
2.1.5.    Grid services and web services: integration issues
2.2.    Web services as the implementation solution for grid services
2.2.1.    Basic components of web service technology
2.2.2.    WS-* standards
2.2.3.    RESTful web services and grid
2.2.4.    Web service composition
2.2.5.    Semantic extensions for web services
2.3.     Open Grid Services Architecture
2.3.1.    OGSA main principles
2.3.2.    OGSA concept implementation: OGSI, WSRF
2.4.    Some examples of grid service architecture implementation
2.5.    Grid services integration with the national grid infrastructure

Chapter 3. Semantic grid

The third chapter is fully devoted to semantic grid. Semantic technologies are able to improve different aspects of grid system: from the selection of computing resources and storages and scheduling algorithms to the enhanced user interface. Much attention is paid to the questions of the common multi-layered architecture of semantic grid. Examples of pioneer semantic grid projects are given.

3.1.    Applying semantic technology for grid
3.1.1.    Computation algorithms organizing
3.1.2.    Semantic-based computing resources selection
3.1.3.    Storage resource discovery
3.1.4.    Data origins
3.1.5.    Semantic portlets
3.2.    Semantic grid architecture
3.3.    Review on existing semantic grids

Chapter 4. Semantic grid portal

This chapter is devoted to the semantic grid portal implementation issues. Portal’s basis is constituted by the semantic grid information system based on the developed ontology of grid resources. It also uses the semantic knowledge base to provide a higher-level service. Theoretical approaches on converting grid information subsystem data to the semantic knowledge base are shown, and some details are covered and their implementation is commented. The generalized recommendations on expansion of functionality of this portal are given.

4.1.    Motivation
4.2.    On the way to semantic portal
4.3.    Semantic-based grid information system development
4.3.1.    Problem definition
4.3.2.    Grid information system
4.3.3.    Grid information resources ontology
4.3.4.    Semantic knowledge base generation
4.3.5.    Ontology integration
4.3.6.    Semantic search
4.3.7.    Implementation details
4.4.    Semantic representation of the portal information
4.4.1.    Outer access service
4.4.2.    Semantic data navigation
4.5.    Further portal functionality recommendations

Conclusions
References

This handbook is available at http://moodle.kpi.ua

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